- Created: 17-10-21
- Last Login: 17-10-21
Description: What are the most healthful vegetables? Eating plenty of vegetables may be one of the simplest ways to improve health and well-being. All vegetables contain healthful vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber — but some stand out for their exceptional benefits. Specific vegetables may offer more health advantages to certain people, depending on their diets, overall health, and nutritional needs. In this article, we look at 15 of the most healthful vegetables and suggest ways to enjoy them as part of a balanced diet. 1. Spinach Spinach is a leafy green vegetable and a great source of calcium, vitamins, iron, and antioxidants. Due to its iron and calcium content, spinach is a great addition to any meat- or dairy-free diet. One cup of raw spinach is mostly made up of water and contains only 7 caloriesTrusted Source. It also provides: an adult’s full daily requirementTrusted Source of vitamin K high amounts of vitamin A vitamin C magnesium folate iron calcium antioxidants Vitamin K is essential for a healthy body — especially for strong bones, as it improves the absorption of calcium. Spinach also provides a good amount of iron for energy and healthy blood, and a high level of magnesium for muscle and nerve function. It is also rich in antioxidants, and researchTrusted Source suggests that spinach leaves may lower blood pressure and benefit heart health. If a person is taking blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin), they should use caution when increasing their intake of dark leafy greens. Doctors recommend maintaining a consistent vitamin K intake over time for people taking these medications. How to eat spinach People enjoy spinach raw in salads, sandwiches, and smoothies. Cooked spinach also has significant health benefits and is a great addition to pasta dishes and soups. 2. Kale Kale is a very popular leafy green vegetable products with several health benefits. It provides around 7 caloriesTrusted Source per cup of raw leaves and good amounts of vitamins A, C, and K. Kale may benefit people with high cholesterol. One small 2008 study reports that males with high cholesterol who drank 150 milliliters of kale juice each day for 12 weeks experienced a 10% reduction in low-density lipoprotein, or “bad,” cholesterol and a 27% increase in high-density lipoprotein, or “good,” cholesterol. Research from 2015Trusted Source, meanwhile, suggests that kale juice can reduce blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood sugar levels. If a person is taking blood thinners, such as Coumadin, they should use caution when increasing their intake of dark leafy greens. It is best to maintain a consistent vitamin K intake while taking these medications. How to eat kale People use baby kale in pasta dishes, salads, and sandwiches. A person may also enjoy kale chips or juice. 3. Broccoli Broccoli is an incredibly healthful vegetable that belongs to the same family as cabbage, kale, and cauliflower, fresh garlic, fresh onion, etc. These are all cruciferous vegetables. Each cup of chopped and boiled broccoli contains: around 31 caloriesTrusted Source the full daily requirement of vitamin K twice the daily recommended amount of vitamin C According to the National Cancer InstituteTrusted Source, animal research has found that certain chemicals, called indoles and isothiocyanates, in cruciferous vegetables may inhibit the development of cancer in several organs, including the bladder, breasts, liver, and stomach. These compounds may protect cells from DNA damage, inactivate cancer-causing agents, and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, research in humans has been mixed. How to eat broccoli Broccoli is very versatile. People can roast it, steam it, fry it, blend it into soups, or enjoy it warm in salads. 4. Peas Peas are a sweet, starchy vegetable. They contain 134 caloriesTrusted Source per cooked cup, and they are rich in: fiber, providing 9 grams (g) per serving protein, providing 9 g per serving vitamins A, C, and K certain B vitamins Green peas are a good source of plant-based protein, which may be especially beneficial for people with vegetarian or vegan diets. Peas and other legumes contain fiber, which supports good bacteria in the gut and helps ensure regular bowel movements and a healthy digestive tract. They are also rich in saponins, plant compounds that may help protect againstTrusted Source oxidative stress and cancer. How to eat peas It might be handy to keep a bag of peas in the freezer and gradually use them to boost the nutritional profiles of pasta dishes, risottos, and curries. A person might also enjoy a refreshing pea and mint soup. 5. Sweet potatoes Sweet potatoes are root vegetables. Baked in its skin, a medium sweet potato provides 103 caloriesTrusted Source and 0.17 g of fat. Each sweet potato also contains: much more than an adult’s daily requirement of vitamin A 25% of their vitamin C and B6 requirements 12% of their potassium requirement beta carotene, which may improve eye health and help fight cancer Sweet potatoes may be a good option for people with diabetes. This is because they are low on the glycemic index and rich in fiber, so they may help regulate blood sugar. How to eat sweet potatoes For a simple meal, bake a sweet potato in its skin and serve it with a source of protein, such as fish or tofu. 6. Beets One cup of raw beets contains: 58.5 caloriesTrusted Source 442 milligrams (mg) of potassium 148 micrograms of folate Beets and beet juice are great for improving heart health, as the vegetable is rich in heart-healthy nitrates. A small 2012 studyTrusted Source reports that drinking 500 g of beet juice significantly lowered blood pressure in healthy people. These vegetables may also benefit people with diabetes. Beets contain an antioxidant called alpha-lipoic acid, which might be helpfulTrusted Source for people with diabetes-related nerve problems, called diabetic neuropathy. How to eat beets Roasting beets brings out their natural sweetness, but they also taste great raw in juices, salads, and sandwiches. 7. Carrots Each cup of chopped carrots contains 52 caloriesTrusted Source and over four times an adult’s daily recommended intake of vitamin A, in the form of beta carotene. Vitamin A is vital for healthy eyesight, and getting enough of this nutrient may help prevent vision loss. Certain nutrients in carrots may also have cancer-fighting properties. A 2018 reviewTrusted Source of 10 articles reports that dietary carrot intake was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. How to eat carrots Carrots are extremely versatile. They work well in casseroles and soups, and they provide great health benefits when eaten raw, possibly with a dip such as hummus. 8. Fermented vegetables Fermented vegetables provide all the nutrients of their unfermented counterparts as well as healthful doses of probiotics. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are present in the body and in some foods and supplements. Some researchers believe that they can improve gut health. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthTrusted Source, probiotics may help with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. They may also prevent infection- or antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Some good vegetables for fermentation include: cabbage, as sauerkraut cucumbers, as pickles carrots cauliflower How to eat fermented vegetables People eat fermented vegetables in salads, sandwiches, or as a side dish. 9. Tomatoes Although tomatoes are technically a fruit products, most people treat them like vegetables and use them in savory dishes. Each cup of chopped, raw tomatoes contains: 32 caloriesTrusted Source 427 mg of potassium 24.7 mg of vitamin C Tomatoes contain lycopene, a powerful antioxidant. ResearchTrusted Source suggests that lycopene may help prevent prostate cancer, and the beta carotene in tomatoes also helps combat cancer. Meanwhile, other potent antioxidants in tomatoes, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, may protect vision. The Age-Related Eye Disease StudyTrusted Source reports that people who have high dietary intakes of these substances have a 25% reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration. How to eat tomatoes People enjoy tomatoes raw or cooked, and cooking them releases more lycopene. 10. Garlic People have long used garlic in cooking and medicine. Each garlic clove contains just 4 caloriesTrusted Source and is low in vitamins and minerals. However, garlic is a natural antibiotic. For example, a 2018 reviewTrusted Source notes that people have used garlic for purposes similar to those of antibiotics since the 16th century. Allium, a component of garlic, may be the source of its health benefits. Confirming this will require more research. How to eat garlic Heating garlic reduces its health benefits, so it is best to eat garlic raw, in bruschetta or dips, for example. There is also dried garlic. 11. Onions Each cup of chopped onions can provideTrusted Source: 64 calories vitamin C vitamin B6 manganese Onions and other allium vegetables, including garlic, contain sulfur compounds. Review studies, including a 2019 reviewTrusted Source and a 2015 reviewTrusted Source, suggest that these compounds may help protect against cancer. How to eat onions It can be easy to incorporate onions into soups, stews, stir-fries, and curries. To get the most from their antioxidants, eat them raw — in sandwiches, salads, and dips such as guacamole. 12. Alfalfa sprouts Each cup of alfalfa sprouts contains only 8 caloriesTrusted Source and a good amount of vitamin K. These sprouts also boast several compounds that contribute to good health, including: saponins, a type of bitter compound with health benefits flavonoids, a type of polyphenol known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects phytoestrogens, plant compounds that are similar to natural estrogens Traditionally, some have used alfalfa sprouts to treat a range of health conditions, such as arthritis and kidney problems. However, very few scientific investigations have explored these uses. Research suggests that alfalfa sprouts contain antioxidants, which are compounds that may help fight diseases including cancer and heart disease. Eating sprouted legumes such as these may have other benefits. StudiesTrusted Source suggest that sprouting, or germinating, seeds increases their protein and amino acid contents. Germination may also improveTrusted Source the digestibility of alfalfa and other seeds and increase their dietary fiber content. How to eat alfalfa sprouts People enjoy alfalfa sprouts in salads and sandwiches. 13. Bell peppers Sweet bell peppers may be red, yellow, or orange. Unripe, green bell peppers are also popular, though they taste less sweet. A cup of chopped red bell pepper provides: 39 caloriesTrusted Source 190 mg of vitamin C 0.434 mg of vitamin B6 folate beta carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A Antioxidants and bioactive chemicals present in bell peppers includeTrusted Source: ascorbic acid carotenoids vitamin C beta carotene flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol How to eat bell peppers Bell peppers are extremely versatile and can be easy to incorporate into pasta, scrambled eggs, or a salad. A person might also enjoy them sliced with a side of guacamole or hummus. 14. Cauliflower One cup of chopped cauliflower contains: 27 caloriesTrusted Source plenty of vitamin C vitamin K fiber The American Heart AssociationTrusted Source recommend eating 25 g of dietary fiber each day to promote heart and gut health. Also, cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables contain an antioxidant called indole-3-carbinol. ResearchTrusted Source has linked this compound with cancer-combatting effects in animals. However, confirming the effects in humans requires more research. And like broccoli, cauliflower contains another compound that may help combat cancer: sulforaphane. How to eat cauliflower A person can pulse raw cauliflower in a blender to make cauliflower rice or turn it into a pizza base for a low-calorie, comforting treat. People may also enjoy cauliflower in curries or baked with olive oil and garlic. 15. Seaweed Seaweed, also known as sea vegetables, are versatile and nutritious plants that provide several health benefits. Common types of seaweed include: kelp nori sea lettuce spirulina wakame Seaweed is one of the few plant-based sources of the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These are essential for health and are mostly present in meat and dairy. Each type of seaweed has a slightly different nutritional profile, but they are typically rich in iodine, which is an essential nutrient for thyroid function. Eating a variety of sea vegetables can provide the body with several important antioxidants to reduce cellular damage. Also, many types of seaweed contain chlorophyll, which is a plant pigment that has anti-inflammatory propertiesTrusted Source. Brown sea vegetables, such as kelp and wakame, contain another potent antioxidant called fucoxanthin. ResearchTrusted Source suggests that this has 13.5 times the antioxidant power of vitamin E. How to eat seaweed When possible, choose organic seaweed and eat small amounts to avoid introducing too much iodine into the diet. People enjoy sea vegetables in sushi, miso soups, and as a seasoning for other dishes. Summary Eating vegetables every day is important for health. They provide essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, such as antioxidants and fiber. Research consistently shows that people who eat at least 5 servings of vegetables a day have the lowest risk of many diseases, including cancer and heart disease. Enjoy a range of vegetables and fruits like fresh apple and fresh oranges, daily to reap as many health benefits as possible.
Publish Date: 17-10-21
Description: Difference between feed pellet machine and wood pellet machine Feed pellet machine is also named as pellet feed mill, fodder pellet mill. It belongs to animal feed processing equipment, which can directly extrude corn, soybean meal, rice husk, straw and grass into small pellets. 1, Different Raw Materials Feed pellets are mainly made from corn meal, grass meal, straw meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal and rice husk etc. These materials are relatively soft and moist so they can be processed directly with a small amount of liquid. When the pellets mill working, there will be a heating process, after that, the feed pellets will be even more soft and smooth. Biomass pellets are made from more various and harder materials. Logs, wood chips, waste wood, sawdust, sunflower stalk, cotton stalks, bamboo dust, coffee husk, wheat straw, palm husk and almost all the biomass waste you can think of can be processed in to pellets. Biomass pellets mills deal with raw materials contain more fiber, so the process is more complex than making feed pellet mills. 2, Different Shapes Because of the reason we mentioned above, feed pellet mills and biomass pellet mills are different from the appearance. Generally speaking, feed pellet is smaller and thinner. The largest feed pellet mill is about 1 meters high and weighed several hundreds kilograms. While the smallest biomass pellets mill, for example, the wood pellet mill is more than 2 meters high and weighed around 5 to 6 tons. What’s more, biomass raw materials are hard to process, so you may need a complete biomass pellet line to help you from chipping and crushing the raw material till packing the pellets. 3. Different Input Costs If it is a pellet production line with the same output, for example, the pellet production line that is also 1t / h, the feed pellet production line with feed pellet granulator has a lower investment cost than the wood pellet production line. Richi machinery produces a variety of animal feed pellet machines and wood pellet machines. If you need a large amount of pellets, you need to set up a pellet production line. We can provide you with a complete solution from the early design to the later equipment installation and training. High quality pellets can withstand repeated handling as can occur during bagging, transportation, storage, and moving in feed lines without excessive breakage or generation of fine particles. Here we describe what factors influence the quality. Feed pelleting can be defined as conversion of finely ground mash feed into dense, free flowing pellets or capsules, in a process that involves steam injection (moisture and heat) and mechanical pressure. There are several advantages for feeding broilers pelleted rather than mash feed. The main advantage is the improved bird performance (improved feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion). Birds fed pelleted diets spend less time and need lower maintenance energy requirements during eating and digestion in comparison to those fed mash feed. The other benefits of feeding pelleted diets include increase feed density, decrease feed dustiness, wastage and selection, better mechanical handling of feed on the feed lines, and destruction of feed-borne pathogens. Therefore, the full genetic potentials of modern broiler strains cannot be achieved without pelleted feed. In order to achieve these multi-benefits, the pellet durability should be of a standard quality (not contain too much fines), otherwise, the bird’s performance will be adversely affected. Pellet durability index High quality pellets can be defined as pellets that can withstand repeated handling as can occur during bagging, transportation, storage, and moving on feed lines without excessive breakage or generation of fine particles. Pellet quality is usually expressed as the pellet durability index (PDI), and measured by using a tumbling can device, in which the pellet sample to be tested is first sieved to remove fines, then tumbled in the tumbling can device for a defined period of time. The tumbled sample is then sieved to remove fines, and the amount of intact pellets is determined. The PDI can be calculated as following: weight of intact pellet after tumbling / weight of intact pellet before tumbling x 100. Other devices can be used to determine the pellet durability such as Holmen pellet tester, lignotester, etc. Factors affecting pellet quality Several factors have an effect on the quality of the pellets. First of all the feed formulation (raw materials and additives used). Some feed ingredients have a good impact on pellet quality, while others could adversely affect the quality. Unfortunately, corn-soy diets are not the ideal diets to achieve the desired pellet quality. Dietary inclusion of wheat grain or wheat by products (wheat midds, wheat gluten) can increase pellet durability, because of the high protein (gluten) and hemi-cellulose content of wheat in comparison to corn or corn co-products. Similarly inclusion of oat as a partial substitute of corn can increase pellet quality. We can rank feed grains according to their positive impacts on pellet quality from best to worst as followings: oat, wheat, barley, corn, sorghum. It was previously known that starch and its gelatinisation is the most important factor for achieving the desired pellet quality. However, recent reports indicated that the positive impact of protein on pellet quality is much more important than that of starch. Dietary inclusion of oil has an adverse effect on pellet quality. This is attributed to the coating effect of oil to the feed particles which prevent their penetration by the steam, also oil reduces the friction generated between die and feed particles with subsequent decrease in the starch gelatinisation rate. Inclusion of binding agents (e.g. water (simplest binder), lignin sulphonate, hemicelluloses extract, gelatin, etc.) and/or surfactants can increase pellet quality, pellet throughput, and lower power consumption (Table 2). The Feed pellet quality factor (FPQF) is a tool used to predict the pellet quality of the feed formula. Estimation of the FPQF for certain feed formula: each feed ingredient has a pellet quality factor (PQF). The PQF has a score from 0 to 10, where 0 predicts poor pellet quality and 10 good pellet quality. We can estimate the FPQF for each ingredient by multiplying the PQF by the % of inclusion of the feed ingredient in the formula (Table 1). The overall FPQF equals the sum of the FPQF of all ingredients used in the formula. Generally, values below 4.7 are indicators for poor pellet quality, while values higher that 4.7 are indicators for good pellet quality. Affect of ingredient particle size and grinding on pellet quality The second factor influencing feed pellet line quality is the feed ingredient particle size. Although doubted by some researchers, it is accepted that decreasing ingredient particle size has a good influence on pellet quality. However, over grinding is not recommended to avoid power wastage, reduced production rate and suboptimal gizzard development. On the other hand, coarse grinding eases pellet break down and decreases starch gelatinisation (high degree of gelatinisation is required to produce good pellets). Affect of steam on pellet quality Processing obviously has a large effect on pellet quality as well. When mash feed passes through the conditioner, it is exposed to high pressure steam. This steam provides the heat and moisture required for starch gelatinisation, particles adhesion, feed semi-digestion, and feed pathogens damage. The steam temperature and the time that mash feed stays in the conditioner have major influence on the durability of the produced pellets. Conditioning the feed at a temperature of 80° C is sufficient to produce good quality pellets. The minimum time that feed should stay in the conditioning tube to produce durable pellets is 30 seconds. Long time conditioners, in which the feed can stay in the conditioner for about 3-4 minutes, can be used to improve pellet stickiness. Thicker dies have positive impact on pellet durability Also die/roll specifications should be kept in mind. Pellets are produced via roll pressing of the hot mash against metal die. Thicker dies (long die channels) have a positive impact on pellet durability due to increasing the friction time between feed particles and die wall with subsequent more starch gelatinisation. Most of starch gelatinisation occurs when feed passes through the dies. A similar result can be obtained by using small hole dies. This means that dies of 60 mm thickness are better than those of 50 or 40 mm thickness, and that dies with holes of 3 mm diameter are better than those with holes of 5 mm diameter. However, using thicker or small holes dies have negative impact on pellet throughput. Additionally, increasing the distance between roll and die from 0.1 to 2 mm resulted in an increase in the pellet durability. The cooler should be taken into consideration. After leaving the pellet mill, the temperature of the pellets ranges from 70-90° C and the moisture from 15-17%. Proper cooling (via a stream air cooling machine) is required to lower pellet temperature to about 8° C above the ambient temperature, and moisture % to be 12%. The cooling machine can be either a horizontal or vertical type. Quick cooling leads to removal of more moisture and heat from the surface of the pellets than their core, and the resultant pellets will be brittle. On the other hand, prolonged cooling produces very dry pellets that can be exposed to abrasion and can be of low palatability. Conclusion Pellet quality can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredients, diet formulation and processing. A good rule of thumb is the pellet quality factor (PQF), that each feed ingredient has. The PQF has a score from 0 to 10, where 0 predicts poor pellet quality and 10 good pellet quality. From experience we know that starch and its gelatinisation is the most important factor for achieving the desired pellet quality. However, recent reports indicated that the positive impact of protein on pellet quality is much more important than that of starch.
Publish Date: 17-10-21
Description: USB-C explained: How to get the most from it (and why it keeps getting better) At the office, home or school, USB-C has arrived. We’ve got tips on how to take advantage of those new ports, along with a peek at the future of data transfer and video. You’ve probably noticed something strange about many of the latest phones, tablets and laptops at your company: The familiar rectangular Type-A USB ports are gone, replaced by smaller oblong connectors. USB-C has taken over at work, at home and at school. While many iPhone and iPad models stick with Apple’s proprietary Lightning connector, USB-C is now part and parcel of most laptops, phones and tablets made today. Even the latest MacBooks and Chromebooks are part of the movement to USB-C. What is USB-C? USB Type-C, usually referred to as just USB-C, is a relatively new connector for delivering data and power to and from computing devices. Because the USB-C plug is symmetrical, it can be inserted either way, eliminating the frustrations of earlier USB ports and putting it on a par with Apple’s reversible Lightning plug. This alone makes it a hit for me, but USB-C is closely linked to several powerful new technologies, including Thunderbolt and USB Power Delivery, that can change how we think about our gear and working in the office, on the road or at home. Most USB-C ports are built on the second-generation USB 3.1 data-transfer standard, which can theoretically deliver data at speeds of up to 10Gbps — twice as fast as USB 3.0 and first-gen USB 3.1, which both top out at 5Gbps. The key is to get devices that say “USB 3.1 Rev 2,” “USB 3.1 Gen 2,” “SuperSpeed USB 10Gbps,” or “SuperSpeed+” to get support for the faster spec. Confusing matters more, the current USB 3.2 standard is mostly a restatement of USB 3.1 specs. For instance, USB 3.2 Gen 1 and 2 are the same as USB 3.1 Gen 1 and 2. The new spec that’s actually noteworthy is USB 3.2 Gen 2X2, which has a pair of 10Gbps lanes of data traffic available for a total of 20Gbps. So far, however, it hasn’t caught on with device manufacturers, so it’s hard to find it on any devices in the wild. That might change in the coming year as new controller chips come out. To make sure the data gets through at higher speeds, always get high-quality cables. They will often have the SuperSpeed logo and a “10” on them to show they’re capable of moving 10Gbps. The good news is that there’s a good chance that this spaghetti bowl of cable standards could disappear with the next rev of the USB spec with a universal USB cable. More on that later. Speed, power, and video delivery A big bonus is that on many laptops and desktops, the USB-C specification also supports Intel’s Thunderbolt 3 data- transfer technology. A USB-C port equipped with Thunderbolt 3 can push data speeds to a theoretical limit of 40Gbps. To show how far we’ve come, that’s four times faster than USB 3.1 and more than 3,000 times faster than the original USB 1 spec of 12Mbps. With increased data-transfer speeds comes the ability to push video over the same connection. USB-C’s Alternate Mode (or “Alt Mode” for short) for video enables adapters to output video from that same USB-C port to HDMI, DisplayPort, VGA and other types of video connectors on displays, TVs and projectors. It pays huge dividends for the ultramobile among us by allowing many recent phones and tablets, such as the Samsung Galaxy Tab S7+ and Note and Tab 6 systems, to directly plug into a monitor at home or a projector in the office. What’s more, USB-C supports the USB Power Delivery (USB PD) specification. A USB 2.0 port can deliver just 2.5 watts of power, about enough to charge a phone, slowly. USB 3.1 ups this figure to about 15 watts. But USB PD can deliver up to 100 watts of power, more than six times what USB 3.1 can. This opens up the potential for laptop-powered projectors based on USB-C, but today it is mostly used for high-power chargers and external battery packs. Next up: USB4 With USB-C accepted as the de facto connector today, the next step is USB4. It can move up to 40Gbps, provide at least 15 watts of power for accessories, and support two 4K displays or a single 8K display. To its credit, USB4 will continue with the small oblong connector that USB-C brought to the party and will work with existing devices, including USB 2.0 ones. (You will need the right adapter for devices without a USB-C port, though.) Behind the scenes, USB4 uses the Thunderbolt 4 spec. It sets up bidirectional lanes of data that should help things like videoconferencing, which require two-way data flow to prevent congestion and jams. In addition to extra security to prevent a hack attack, Thunderbolt 4 will be compatible with Thunderbolt 3 devices, like docking stations and External Graphics Processing Units (eGPUs). It includes dynamic data flow that is adjusted to suit the devices, so older devices won’t slow down newer ones. On the downside, you’ll need a Thunderbolt 4 cable to make it work, but there’s a potential bonus: all Thunderbolt 4 cables will be able to be used on anything from USB 2 (with adapter) through USB4 systems. This will make it as close to a universal data cable as exists today. They’ll be available in 2-meter lengths (about 6? feet), more than twice the standard 0.8-meter length of current USB-C cables. The key to look for when shopping is that they will have the iconic Thunderbolt lightning icon and a 4 on the plug. The USB4/Thunderbolt 4 spec is built into Intel’s 11th-generation Tiger Lake processors, although the company and others will have standalone USB4 controller chips. The first computers with Thunderbolt 4 ports might appear in late 2020 and devices that plug into them early the next year. Making USB-C work for you In the here and now, you’ll need to make some changes and buy some accessories to take full advantage of USB-C. This guide can help ease the transition by showing what you can do with USB-C and what you’ll need to make it work. Be careful, because not all USB-C devices support all of the latest USB-C specs. For instance, just about every USB-C flash drive supports the earlier USB 3.1 Rev 1 protocol, some tablets and phones don’t support Alt Mode video, and we are in the early days of USB Power Delivery, with few devices going beyond 40 or 60 watts. In other words, read the spec sheet carefully so you know what you’re getting before you buy. These tools, tips and DIY projects can help make the transition to a USB-C world easier. Make a USB-C travel kit The good news is that USB-C ports can be used with most older USB 2, 3.0 and 3.1 accessories. The bad news is that you’ll need the right adapters and cables, and so far, I haven’t seen a complete kit available. I’ve made my own USB-C survival kit that has six key cables and adapters inside an old zippered case. Find the right power adapter and cable for your Mac notebook Learn which power adapter, cable, and plug works with your Mac notebook computer. Power adapters for Mac notebooks are available in 29W, 30W, 45W, 60W, 61W, 85W, 87W, and 96W varieties. You should use the appropriate wattage power adapter for your Mac notebook. You can use a compatible higher wattage power adapter without issue, but it won't make your computer charge faster or operate differently. If you use a power adapter that is lower in wattage than the adapter that came with your Mac, it won't provide enough power to your computer. Mac notebooks that charge via USB-C come with an Apple USB-C Power Adapter with detachable AC plug (or duckhead), and a USB-C Charge Cable. Mac notebooks that charge via MagSafe come with an AC adapter with MagSafe connector and detachable AC plug, and an AC cable. Make sure you're using the correct USB-C charge cable and bluetooth glasses For the best charging experience, you should use the USB-C charge cable that comes with your Mac notebook. If you use a higher wattage USB-C cable, your Mac will still charge normally. USB-C cables rated for 29W or 30W will work with any USB-C power adapter, but won't provide enough power when connected to a power adapter that is more than 61W, such as the 96W USB-C Power Adapter. You can verify that you're using the correct version of the Apple USB-C Charge Cable with your Mac notebook and its USB-C AC Adapter. The cable's serial number is printed on its external housing, next to the words Designed by Apple in California. Assembled in China. If the first three characters of the serial number are C4M or FL4, the cable is for use with an Apple USB-C Power Adapter up to 61W. If the first three characters of the serial number are DLC, CTC, FTL, or G0J, the cable is for use with an Apple USB-C Power Adapter up to 100W. If the cable says Designed by Apple in California. Assembled in China but has no serial number, you might be eligible for a replacement USB-C charge cable.
Publish Date: 17-10-21
Description: Short Review About All Types of Busbar Bending Machines Facilities Busbar bending systems are produced to facilitate bending busbars for switch boards and switch gears manufacturers these systems are present in 4 types: 1-Manual busbar bending tools 2-Hydraulic busbar bending tools 3- Simple hydraulic busbar bending machines. 4-Professional busbar bending machines. At Manual tools operator should bend busbar via hand force and it is suitable just for small size if busbars, it could bend busbars at normal axis and measurement is possible just with operator eyes . repeatability and accuracy depends on operator skills. At hydraulic busbar bending tool, We have some condition for accuracy and repeatability but operator needs low force for doing job. This type is suitable for sites or places that electricity is not available and for small jobs. Simple hydraulic busbar bending machines are a good choice for small shops or factories that need bending busbar in normal axis away. Measurement of angles are by mechanical or digital angel indicators. Mostly they have “V” type head that cause two lines behind of busbar after bending they don’t calculate spring back and operator should consider and compensate this fault at bending process. Professional busbar bending machines are suitable for Professional usurers.Bending head is powered with two routable plates to prevent any damage at surface of bus bar after bending. It has high technology angel measurement system that calculate spring back (spring back compensation system) and final bends adapt to desired angel with high accuracy. That’s why at, switch gears geowy we are faced to various types of bending requirements this machine should response to most of them. Edge bending mold: At switch gears some time designer needs to bend busbars from edge especially at electrical keys they need more space for connection’s and edge bending allow them to have enough space. Edge bending mold is a good solvation for this purpose and installable at professional busbar bending machines head. It should keep two main surface of busbar to prevent any bulge at surfaces. Step Mold: In some drawing designers need two closed bends in bus bar and it is not possible to do job with normal head, in these cases step mold bend two bending in one step and result is perfect. Twist bending mold: In some case direction of busbar connections are not in the same directions and mostly operators have to use several pieces of busbars. So by twist bending Mold it is possible to twist busbar up to go degree. Mold for short legs bens: This mold allow operator to bends too closed to end of busbars. CNC Busbar Bending machine, Cutting & Punching Machine The Busbar Bending-Cutting-Punching Machine comprises of 3 stations, namely- Bending, Cutting, and punching station. These stations carry out the operations required to produce the busbar. Working Principle Of Bus Bar Bending Machine At the bending station, the bend is formed on the raw material as per the required dimension. The tool used for bending is unhardened & ungrounded. The operation of cutting is performed at the cutting station. The workpiece is being cut into the desired length with the help of a hardened & grounded HCHCr Blade. The punching station forces the tool to create a hole by shearing. It consists of one suitable die & punch. Features Of Busbar Bending, Cutting & Punching Machine The busbar bending cutting punching machine is a highly versatile and a compact machine. Main drive motor powers the entire machine. The busbar processing equipment is equipped with special tools at its bending station. This bending tool is hardened and carries the operations at a speed of 5mm/sec. On the other hand, busbar cutting machine boasts of having the oil capacity of about 75 liters that also contain a gauge stopper. Punching operation is performed by the busbar punching machine at a speed of 13 strokes per minute. A separate foot switch for every station allows user to individually control the operation of the respective stations.
Publish Date: 17-10-21
Description: Hydraulic Press What is a Hydraulic Press? A hydraulic press is a mechanical device that uses the static pressure of a liquid, as defined by Pascal‘s principle, to shape, deform, and configure various types of metals, plastics, rubber, and wood. The mechanism of a hydraulic press consists of a mainframe, power system, and controls. Pascal‘s principle states that when pressure is applied to a confined liquid, a pressure change occurs in the liquid. For a hydraulic press, the pressure in a liquid is applied by a piston that works like a pump to create mechanical force. Chapter Two: How a Hydraulic Press Machine Works The process of a hydraulic press begins when a hydraulic fluid is forced into a double acting piston. The compressive force inside the small hydraulic cylinder pushes the fluid into a larger cylinder where more force and pressure are applied. The movement of the larger piston forces the fluid back into the smaller piston cylinder. The passage of the fluids between the two pistons creates increased pressure that produces mechanical force to drive the anvil on a hydraulic press downward onto a workpiece that is deformed to produce a desired shape. Once the movement is complete, the pressure is released and the anvil returns to its original position. How a Hydraulic Press Works The components of a hydraulic press include two cylinders, two pipes, and two pistons. One of the cylinders is the ram and the other is the plunger; they are connected by a chamber that is filled with hydraulic fluid. Ram In many hydraulic systems, several rams are used, the number of which depends on the working load. Multiple small rams are preferred over a single larger one to allow for better control over the thrust force. Fluid is supplied to the ram by a pump and hydraulic accumulator that works between the rams and the pump. Accumulator The accumulator stores hydraulic pressure as a fluid, which is released when required. The configuration of a hydraulic accumulator is a cylinder with a piston that is spring loaded or pneumatically pressurized. The pump continuously pumps hydraulic fluid into the accumulator to keep the pressure in it constant. The inlet of the accumulator is attached to the pump, while the outlet is attached to the machine. Without the accumulator, the pump would have to be continually running. The accumulator helps avoid this by serving as a storage container for the energy needed to operate the machine. Pump The three types of hydraulic pumps are vane, gear, and piston with piston pumps being the most commonly used. The pumps for a hydraulic press are a positive displacement pump, which means they deliver a constant amount of fluid with each pumping cycle. The positive displacement pump can be fixed or variable with a fixed pump working at a constant speed while a variable pump changes speeds and can be reversed. The reason that piston pumps are best suited for hydraulic presses is their ability to perform in high pressure hydraulic systems. The pump operates at large volumetric levels due to its low fluid leakage. The types of piston pumps include axial, bent axis, and radial. Cylinders The number of cylinders in a single column hydraulic press varies according to its design. The function of the cylinders is to generate the compressive force that drives the anvil and die. In a two cylinder design, the diameter of the cylinder that carries the ram is larger, while the diameter of the second cylinder that carries the plunger is smaller. Cylinders are metal pipes with two ports for the input and output of hydraulic fluid. The cylinders are connected by a pipe containing hydraulic fluid. When the plunger in the small cylinder applies pressure to the hydraulic fluid through a downward action, the created pressure is applied to the ram. The action in the smaller cylinder by the downward movement of the plunger is that of a mechanical actuator used to produce unidirectional force by a unidirectional stroke. Hydraulic Press Process The mechanical results of the pressure created in the hydraulic system can be seen in the animation below where a plane slug is placed under the anvil, and pressure created by the cylinders drives the ram that drives the anvil down into the slug and forces it into the die. Types of Hydraulic Presses Hydraulic presses play a major role in the fabrication, assembly, and production of components for machinery and parts for commercial and industrial products. The differences between the types of hydraulic presses are determined by several factors, which include their frame and the metals used to manufacture them. The popular use of hydraulic presses in manufacturing is due to their ability to apply substantial compressive force to billets to flatten, shape, straighten, stamp, and bend the billets into designs and various forms. The process of hydraulic presses, with the use of a variety of dies, can be changed and customized to fit a wide range of manufacturing requirements. Types of Hydraulic Presses H Frame Hydraulic Press With an H frame (two column) hydraulic press, the frame, press cylinder, pump, and bolster are in the shape of an "H." The uses for H frame hydraulic presses machine include work in repair shops, maintenance buildings, and production assembly lines. They have a hand pump for low volume applications or air and electrical pumps where consistent operation is required. The amount of available force in an H frame depends on the size of its cylinder. C Frame Hydraulic Press Single column (C frame) hydraulic presses have a body frame in the shape of the letter "C" with a single arm structure. They have excellent rigidity, guide performance, speed, and exceptional precision. They are ideal for small operations and require limited floor space. Four Column Hydraulic Press Four column hydraulic presses can apply substantial force to any size work piece. They can have a single or two cylinder design depending on the requirements of the manufacturing process. Four column presses have a central control system with semi-automatic cycling and adjustable pressure and compression speed. The punching and working pressure are adjusted in accordance with the needs of the stroke range. Horizontal Hydraulic Press There are operations where it is difficult to shape a component or part using a conventional vertical press because the part is too long or short to load vertically. Those types of workpieces are shaped by a horizontal press where pressure is applied horizontally. With a horizontal press, there are two platens with one being fixed while the other is movable. Pressure is applied horizontally between the platens. This type of press has a protective mechanism on the hydraulic system to avoid overload, and it can have different tools attached. Hydraulic Wheel Press A horizontal wheel hydraulic press is used for mounting and unmounting wheels, bearings, gears, and sheaves onto and off of shafts, axles, rolls, or armatures. They are used for the correction of shaft parts and pressing of shaft sleeve parts. A wide range of industries use hydraulic horizontal wheel presses as part of their production process. Examples include the automotive, motor, electronics, mining, and home appliance industries where precision press mounting is necessary. Straightening Hydraulic Press When large, long shafts from oil rigs, cars, trucks, and aircraft need to be straightened, the ideal method is a hydraulic straightening press that slowly controls the straightening process, resulting in accurate and fully functional parts. Hydraulic straightening presses can be used to straighten shafts, plates, and large weldments. Straightening hydraulic presses for weldments straighten the workpiece prior to it being welded. The process for working with shafts is a little more difficult since they come in different diameters and lengths. Straightening hydraulic presses can have a fixed head or moving gantry. When large diameter shafts are being straightened, gantry type presses are used where the press moves along the X axis while the main cylinder provides Z axis downward movement to engage the shaft. Uses for Hydraulic Presses The hydraulic press is a major part of a variety of manufacturing and production processes. From the shaping and creation of machine components to crushing and compacting waste and refuse, hydraulic presses are an essential part of modern industrial operations. The use of hydraulic presses is based on the concept of compressive force created by pistons that produce mechanical force through the use of pressure from an incompressible liquid. The amount of force can range from a few tons for a manual hydraulic press to thousands of tons for motor driven ones. Uses for Hydraulic Presses Manufacturing Part production and fabrication are the most common uses for hydraulic presses. The speed at which hydraulic presses can configure and shape automobile parts from wiper blades to gear housings has made it an essential part of product manufacturing. The number of industries that depend on hydraulic presses range from steel production and assembly to precise and complex electronics components. Powder Compacting A powder compacting press compresses different powdered materials into shapes, designs, and densities by applying an exact amount of pressure to the material placed in a mold. Any of the various hydraulic presses can be used for the process, from the two column version to four column version. To complete the compacting process, the powder mixture is loaded into a steel die where it is pressurized to the shape and form of the die. The three stages of the compressing process deform the particles of the powder and significantly increase its density. Scrap Baling An image of hydraulic presses that has become popular in entertainment is the scrap baling press that crushes cars, equipment, and machines. This type of hydraulic press has gained popularity as a method for recycling and repurposing the raw materials from products that are no longer of use. A hydraulic scrap baler is a cold pressing method for compacting various types of metals for convenient storage, reprocessing, and transport. There are a wide range of scrap balers, with each type designed to crush and compact a particular type of material. Ceramics Production The traditional method for shaping and forming ceramics uses a heated kiln at a temperature exceeding 1800° F. The heated method is slowly being replaced by hydraulic presses that work at room temperature. Using minimum pressure and significantly less time, hydraulic presses compress ceramic material into shapes and forms such as bathroom tiles, bricks, and cement.
Publish Date: 17-10-21